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India's Leading Exporter of Hand pumps & Treadle Pumps

Step Type Of Service Water source Quality Protection Water use LPCD* Energy source Operation and maintenance needs Costs General remarks
5 House Connections Groundwater Surface water Spring Good, no treatment May need treatment Good, no treatment 100 To150 Gravity Electric Diesel WeIl Trained operator;Reliable fuel and chemical supplies;many spare parts: wastewater disposal High capital and 0&M costs, except for gravity schemes Most desirable service level, but high resource needs
4 Yardtaps Groundwater Surface water Spring Good. no treatment May need treatment Good, no treatment 50 to 100 Gravity Electric Diesel Well trained operator; reliable fuel and chemical supplies: many spare parts High capital and 0&M costs. except gravity schemes Very good access to safe water: fuel and institutional support critical
3 Stand pipes Groundwater Surface water Spring Good, no treatment May need treatment Good. no treatment 10 to 40 Gravity Electric Diesel Wind Solar Well trained operator; reliable fuel and chemical supplies: many spare parts Moderate capital and 0&M costs. except gravity schemes; collection time Good access to safe water: cost competitive with handpumps at high pumping lifts
2 Handpumps Groundwater Good. no treatment 10 to40 Manual Trained repairer: few spare parts Low capital and 0&M costs; collection time Good access to safe water: sustainable by villagers
1 Improved traditional sources (partially protected) Groundwater Surface water Spring
Rainwater
Variable
Poor
Variable
Good. If protected
10 to 40 Manual General upkeep Very low capital and 0&M costs: collection time Improvement if traditional source was badly contaminated
o Traditional sources (unprotected) Surface water Groundwater Spring
Rainwater
Poor
Poor
Variable
Variable
10 to 40 Manual General upkeep Low 0&M costs (buckets,etc.) Collection time Starting point for supply improvement

 

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